How To Survive The Extreme Cold
When you are in extreme cold conditions or areas, the first and most important thing that you must keep in mind is to preserve as much heat as possible. The best way to do this is to wear warm clothing and wear layers of clothes to keep you warm. You must wear a woolen cap to keep your head and ears warm to maintain your inner body temperature, gloves to keep your hands warm and wear a pair of boots on your feet. If you are in an area where there is snow then wear clothes that will protect you from the snow. Snowshoes are the best in such areas as they are designed to distribute your weight and prevent you from sinking into the snow.
Carrying a flashlight when you are venturing out is very essential to finding your way around - carry a lighter or matches with you as well. Do not take long periods of rest and if you feel tired, just rest for a few moments and start moving again.
Do not drink any cold water or eat any snow because by doing so you will only bring down your body temperature. The cold weather will make you lazy and sleepy but do not fall asleep because there are chances that you may never wake up if hypothermia occurs. You may also get frost bitten, so make sure to sleep only when you find a shelter or you have built one.
If it is windy and the temperature falls as low as minus 50 degrees F, the only option you have is to build an igloo. While building an igloo you must keep in mind that it has to be big enough to fit in comfortably. An igloo is ideal if you want to rest for a while as it retains heat as long as it does not have any holes.
Try and build the structure with whatever material that is available to you, you could use branches of trees to make a lean-to or a wigwam. Always remember not to put the entrance facing the direction of the wind.
In the cold, a fire is the most essential thing to keep you warm and maintain your body temperature. Carry matches or a lighter with you, it will help in building a fire. The use of proper equipment to build a fire will make it easy. Do not build a fire near branches of trees that are heavily laden with snow. If you do not have matches then use a magnifying lens or sticks to start a fire.
A study of Nordic fishermen has shown that people who have clean skin get frostbitten easily when compared to people who do not have clear skin. Frostbite can get bad if washed so avoid washing or rubbing the affected area.
Sometimes it is beyond anyone's control to avoid being in weather that is extremely cold and in an area where you have never been before. You must always be prepared and have enough knowledge as to what you must do.